Monday, September 30, 2013

Neuropsychopharmacology and Neuroscience, October 1, 2013

FDA Approves New Drug to Treat Major Depressive Disorder
Last monday, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Brintellix (vortioxetine) to treat adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). The product, co-marketed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals and Lundbeck, will be available in 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg and 20 mg tablets.
Link: http://goo.gl/I4FePY

Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Relationship to Substance Use Initiation
Biological Psychiatry
Conclusion: Prenatal Cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with structural differences in cortical and limbic regions. Lower gray matter volume (GMV) in frontal cortical and posterior regions are associated with substance use initiation and may represent biological risk markers for substance use.
Link: http://goo.gl/hCltqU

Effect of Antidepressant Medication Use on Emotional Information Processing in Major Depression
The American Journal of Psychiatry
Conclusions: Antidepressants, as prescribed in the community to patients with depression, appear to modify emotional information processing in the absence of differences in depression severity. These results are consistent with previous work and indicate a robust effect for antidepressants on positive information processing. They also provide further evidence for modification of information processing as a potential mechanism of action for antidepressant medication.
Link: http://goo.gl/C7wMQk 


Elevated C-Reactive Protein Associated With Late- and Very-Late-Onset Schizophrenia in the General Population: A Prospective Study 

Schizophrenia Bulletin
Conclusion: Baseline elevated plasma CRP is associated with a 6- to 11-fold increased risk of late- and very-late-onset schizophrenia in the general population. We cannot exclude that this is a causal association. These are novel findings.
Link: http://bit.ly/GzunY8

Varenicline, Smoking Cessation, and Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events

The American Journal of Psychiatry
ConclusiĆ³n: This analysis revealed no evidence that varenicline is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric events. The evidence supports the superior efficacy of varenicline relative to both placebo and bupropion, indicating considerable benefit without evidence of risk of serious neuropsychiatric adverse events, in individuals with and without a recent history of a psychiatric disorder.
Link: http://goo.gl/PBpp0r

FDA Announces Labeling Changes, Postmarket-Study Requirements for Opioids Analgesics

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated safety labeling changes and new postmarket study requirements for all extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioid painkillers. The ruling was prompted by the high incidence of overdose-related deaths and misuse of opioid drugs, which was reportedly used by 2.4 million Americans in 2010, according to government data.
Link: http://goo.gl/gc1vt0 

Oxytocin and Reduction of Social Threat Hypersensitivity in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder

The American Journal of Psychiatry 

Conclusions: Borderline patients exhibit a hypersensitivity to social threat in early, reflexive stages of information processing. Oxytocin may decrease social threat hypersensitivity and thus reduce anger and aggressive behavior in borderline personality disorder or other psychiatric disorders with enhanced threat-driven reactive aggression.
Link: http://goo.gl/4vT2x1


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