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Thursday, September 5, 2013

Neuropsychopharmacology and Neuroscience, September 1, 2013

Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Increased in Youth Taking Antipsychotics, Study Finds
Antipsychotic drug use has been associated with increased risk for onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adults, and according to a study published in JAMA Psychiatry, the risk may hold true in children as well. Researchers in the departments of Psychiatry and Preventive Medicine at Vanderbilt University conducted a one-year study that compared the probability of antipsychotic-mediated type 2 diabetes onset in 43,000 youth ranging from age 6 to 24.

FDA permits marketing of first brain wave test to help assess children and teens for ADHD
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today allowed marketing of the first medical device based on brain function to help assess attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old. When used as part of a complete medical and psychological examination, the device can help confirm an ADHD diagnosis or a clinician’s decision that further diagnostic testing should focus on ADHD or other medical or behavioral conditions that produce symptoms similar to ADHD.

FDA approved Levomilnacipran (Fetzima)
Forest Laboratories, Inc. and Pierre Fabre Laboratories announced that Fetzima (Levomilnacipran extended-release capsules), a once-daily serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), discovered by Pierre Fabre Laboratories and co-developed by Forest Laboratories, Inc. was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults.

Ketamine Shows Significant Benefit in People with Treatment-Resistant Depression
Patients with treatment-resistant major depression saw dramatic improvement in their illness after treatment with ketamine, an anesthetic, according to the largest ketamine clinical trial to-date led by researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The antidepressant benefits of ketamine were seen within 24 hours, whereas traditional antidepressants can take days or weeks to demonstrate a reduction in depression.

Researchers Find Brain Changes in Teens Who Were Maltreated
Child maltreatment can change the brain as it develops in the teenage years, according to researchers who studied the brains of 117 adolescents using magnetic resonance imaging, first at about age 12 and then around age 16. They asked the teens about childhood maltreatment and assessed them for the presence of psychiatric disorders. They found differences in the growth of two areas of the brain known to respond to stress: the hippocampus and the amygdala. Link:

Genetic Variation in Depressed Mothers Tied to Psychiatric Illnesss in Children
New data suggest that there is an association between oxytocin receptor variances in mothers with chronic depression and Axis I disorders in their children.
There appears to be a strong relationship between oxytocin dysfunction and adverse social outcomes, according to a study published July 12 in AJP in Advance.

Brain Circuit Can Tune Anxiety
Anxiety disorders, which include posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder, affect 40 million American adults in a given year. Currently available treatments, such as antianxiety drugs, are not always effective and have unwanted side effects. To develop better treatments, a more specific understanding of the brain circuits that produce anxiety is necessary, says Kay Tye, an assistant professor of brain and cognitive sciences and member of MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory.

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