Thursday, November 1, 2018

November 2018

Corroboration of a Major Role for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer’s Disease


Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Abstract

Strong evidence has emerged recently for the concept that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a major risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This concept proposes that latent HSV1 in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is reactivated intermittently by events such as immunosuppression, peripheral infection, and inflammation, the consequent damage accumulating, and culminating eventually in the development of AD. Population data to investigate this epidemiologically, e.g., to find if subjects treated with antivirals might be protected from developing dementia—are available in Taiwan, from the National Health Insurance Research Database, in which 99.9% of the population has been enrolled. This is being extensively mined for information on microbial infections and disease. Three publications have now appeared describing data on the development of senile dementia (SD), and the treatment of those with marked overt signs of disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV), or by HSV. The striking results show that the risk of SD is much greater in those who are HSV-seropositive than in seronegative subjects, and that antiviral treatment causes a dramatic decrease in number of subjects who later develop SD. It should be stressed that these results apply only to those with severe cases of HSV1 or VZV infection, but when considered with the over 150 publications that strongly support an HSV1 role in AD, they greatly justify usage of antiherpes antivirals to treat AD. Three other studies are described which directly relate to HSV1 and AD: they deal respectively with lysosomal changes in HSV1-infected cell cultures, with evidence for a role of human herpes virus type 6 and 7 (HHV6 and HHV7) in AD, and viral effects on host gene expression, and with the antiviral characteristics of beta amyloid (Aβ). Three indirectly relevant studies deal respectively with schizophrenia, relating to antiviral treatment to target HSV1, with the likelihood that HSV1 is a cause of fibromyalgia (FM), and with FM being associated with later development of SD. Studies on the link between epilepsy, AD and herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) are described also, as are the possible roles of APOE-ε4, HHV6 and HSV1 in epilepsy. 


Organophosphate exposures during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment: Recommendations for essential policy reforms


PLOS Medicine

• Widespread use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides to control insects has resulted inubiquitous human exposures.
• High exposures to OP pesticides are responsible for poisonings and deaths, particularly in developing countries.
• Compelling evidence indicates that prenatal exposure at low levels is putting children atrisk for cognitive and behavioral deficits and for neurodevelopmental disorders.To protect children worldwide, we recommend the following:
• Governments phase out chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides, monitor watersheds andother sources of human exposures, promote use of integrated pest management (IPM)through incentives and training in agroecology, and implement mandatory surveillanceof pesticide-related illness.
• Health professions implement curricula on the hazards from OP pesticides in nursingand medical schools and in continuing medical education courses and educate theirpatients and the public about these hazards.
• Agricultural entities accelerate the development of nontoxic approaches to pest controlthrough IPM and ensure the safety of workers through training and provision of protec-tive equipment when toxic chemicals are to be used.
 
 


METABOLIC EFFECTS OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS ON ADIPOSITY AND INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN YOUTHS


JAMA Psychiatry
  
Importance  
Antipsychotic medications are commonly used to treat nonpsychotic disruptive behavioral disorders in youths.

Objective  
To characterize the metabolic effects of first exposure to antipsychotics in youths using criterion standard assessments of body composition and insulin sensitivity.

Design, Setting, and Participants  
This randomized clinical trial recruited antipsychotic-naive youths aged 6 to 18 years in the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were diagnosed with 1 or more psychiatric disorders and clinically significant aggression and in whom antipsychotic treatment was considered. Participants were enrolled from June 12, 2006, through November 10, 2010. Enrolled participants were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 antipsychotics commonly used in children with disruptive behavioral disorders and evaluated for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed from January 17, 2011, through August 9, 2017.

Interventions  
Twelve weeks of treatment with oral aripiprazole (n = 49), olanzapine (n = 46), or risperidone (n = 49).

Main Outcomes and Measures  
Primary outcomes included percentage total body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and insulin sensitivity in muscle measured via hyperinsulinemic clamps with stable isotopically labeled tracers. Secondary outcomes included abdominal adiposity measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and adipose and hepatic tissue insulin sensitivity measured via clamps with tracers.

Results  
The intention-to-treat sample included 144 participants (98 males [68.1%]; mean [SD] age, 11.3 [2.8] years); 74 (51.4%) were African American, and 43 (29.9%) were overweight or obese at baseline. For the primary outcomes, from baseline to week 12, DXA percentage total body fat increased by 1.18% for risperidone, 4.12% for olanzapine, and 1.66% for aripiprazole and was significantly greater for olanzapine than risperidone or aripiprazole (time by treatment interaction P < .001). From baseline to week 12, insulin-stimulated change in glucose rate of disappearance increased by 2.30% for risperidone and decreased by 29.34% for olanzapine and 30.26% for aripiprazole, with no significant difference across medications (time by treatment interaction, P < .07). This primary measure of insulin sensitivity decreased significantly during 12 weeks in the pooled study sample (effect of time, F = 17.38; P < .001). For the secondary outcomes from baseline to week 12, MRI measured abdominal fat increased, with subcutaneous fat increase significantly greater for olanzapine than risperdone or aripiprazole (time by treatment, P = .003). Behavioral improvements occurred with all treatments.

Conclusions and Relevance  
Adverse changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity were observed during 12 weeks of antipsychotic treatment in youths, with the greatest fat increases on olanzapine. Such changes, likely attributable to treatment, may be associated with risk for premature cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. The results inform risk-benefit considerations for antipsychotic use in youths.



GREATER DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, COGNITION, AND MARKERS OF BRAIN AGING


Neurology 

Abstract

Objective
We examined whether greater depressive symptoms were associated with domain-specific cognitive performance, change in cognition, and MRI markers of brain atrophy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a diverse sample of older adults from the Northern Manhattan Study.

Methods 
Data were analyzed from the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study of mostly Caribbean Hispanic, stroke-free, older adults. A total of 1,111 participants had baseline measures of depressive symptoms, measured as the Center of Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale, MRI markers, and cognitive function. A Center of Epidemiological Studies–Depression score ≥16 was considered indicative of greater depressive symptoms. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of interest.

Results At baseline 
22% of participants had greater depressive symptoms. Greater depressive symptoms were significantly associated with worse baseline episodic memory in models adjusted for sociodemographic, vascular risk factor, behavioral, and antidepressive medication variables (β [95% confidence interval] = −0.21 [−0.33 to −0.10], p = 0.0003). Greater depressive symptoms were also associated with smaller cerebral parenchymal fraction (β [95% confidence interval] = −0.56 [−1.05 to −0.07], p = 0.02) and increased odds of subclinical brain infarcts (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.55 [1.00–2.42], p = 0.05), after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and vascular risk factor variables. Greater depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with white matter hyperintensity volume, hippocampal volume, or change in cognition over an average of 5 years. Results were unchanged when stabilized inverse probability weights were applied to address selective attrition during the study period.

Conclusions 
In this sample of mostly Caribbean Hispanic, stroke-free, older adults, greater depressive symptoms were associated with worse episodic memory, smaller cerebral volume, and silent infarcts.



MULTISCALE ANALYSIS OF INDEPENDENT ALZHEIMER’S COHORTS FINDS DISRUPTION OF MOLECULAR, GENETIC, AND CLINICAL NETWORKS BY HUMAN HERPESVIRUS


Neuron

Summary

Investigators have long suspected that pathogenic microbes might contribute to the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) although definitive evidence has not been presented. Whether such findings represent a causal contribution, or reflect opportunistic passengers of neurodegeneration, is also difficult to resolve. We constructed multiscale networks of the late-onset AD-associated virome, integrating genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and histopathological data across four brain regions from human post-mortem tissue. We observed increased human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) from subjects with AD compared with controls. These results were replicated in two additional, independent and geographically dispersed cohorts. We observed regulatory relationships linking viral abundance and modulators of APP metabolism, including induction of APBB2, APPBP2, BIN1, BACE1, CLU, PICALM, and PSEN1 by HHV-6A. This study elucidates networks linking molecular, clinical, and neuropathological features with viral activity and is consistent with viral activity constituting a general feature of AD.



3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA)-ASSISTED PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN MILITARY VETERANS, FIREFIGHTERS, AND POLICE OFFICERS: A RANDOMISED, DOUBLE-BLIND, DOSE-RESPONSE, PHASE 2 CLINICAL TRIAL


The Lancet Psychiatry

Summary

Background
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in military personnel and first responders, many of whom do not respond to currently available treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy for treating chronic PTSD in this population.

Methods
We did a randomised, double-blind, dose-response, phase 2 trial at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in the USA. We included service personnel who were 18 years or older, with chronic PTSD duration of 6 months or more, and who had a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-IV) total score of 50 or greater. Using a web-based randomisation system, we randomly assigned participants (1:1:2) to three different dose groups of MDMA plus psychotherapy: 30 mg (active control), 75 mg, or 125 mg. We masked investigators, independent outcome raters, and participants until after the primary endpoint. MDMA was administered orally in two 8-h sessions with concomitant manualised psychotherapy. The primary outcome was mean change in CAPS-IV total score from baseline to 1 month after the second experimental session. Participants in the 30 mg and 75 mg groups subsequently underwent three 100–125 mg MDMA-assisted psychotherapy sessions in an open-label crossover, and all participants were assessed 12 months after the last MDMA session. Safety was monitored through adverse events, spontaneously reported expected reactions, vital signs, and suicidal ideation and behaviour. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01211405.

Findings
Between Nov 10, 2010, and Jan 29, 2015, 26 veterans and first responders met eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg (n=7), 75 mg (n=7), or 125 mg (n=12) of MDMA plus psychotherapy. At the primary endpoint, the 75 mg and 125 mg groups had significantly greater decreases in PTSD symptom severity (mean change CAPS-IV total scores of −58·3 [SD 9·8] and −44·3 [28·7]; p=0·001) than the 30 mg group (−11·4 [12·7]). Compared with the 30 mg group, Cohen's d effect sizes were large: 2·8 (95% CI 1·19–4·39) for the 75 mg group and 1·1 (0·04–2·08) for the 125 mg group. In the open-label crossover with full-dose MDMA (100–125 mg), PTSD symptom severity significantly decreased in the group that had previously received 30 mg (p=0·01), whereas no further significant decreases were observed in the group that previously achieved a large response after 75 mg doses in the blinded segment (p=0·81). PTSD symptoms were significantly reduced at the 12-month follow-up compared with baseline after all groups had full-dose MDMA (mean CAPS-IV total score of 38·8 [SD 28·1] vs 87·1 [16·1]; p<0·0001). 85 adverse events were reported by 20 participants. Of these adverse events, four (5%) were serious: three were deemed unrelated and one possibly related to study drug treatment.

Interpretation
Active doses (75 mg and 125 mg) of MDMA with adjunctive psychotherapy in a controlled setting were effective and well tolerated in reducing PTSD symptoms in veterans and first responders.



DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW RATING SCALE FOR PERIMENOPAUSAL DEPRESSION—THE MENO-D


Translational Psychiatry

Abstract

The menopause transition is a time when women experience an increased risk for new onset depression, as well as relapse of depression. While there are overlapping symptoms between major depression and depression during menopause, differences suggest ‘perimenopausal depression’ may be a unique subtype of depression associated with characteristic symptoms. There is currently no validated scale designed to measure perimenopausal depression. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the ‘Meno-D’, a self-reporting or clinician rated questionnaire, designed to rate the severity of symptoms of perimenopausal depression. The development phase of the Meno-D involved literature review, clinical observation, and focus groups. A 12-item questionnaire was developed and clinically reviewed for face validity for content. The Meno-D was administered to women experiencing symptoms of perimenopausal depression as part of a larger baseline assessment battery. Validation involved confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The development of the Meno-D resulted in 12 items. A total of 93 participants with perimenopausal depression were involved in the baseline assessments, 82 completed the Meno-D. Factor analysis identified five sub-scales of the Meno-D “somatic; cognitive; self; sleep; sexual” with high-internal consistency; discriminant validity and a good construct and convergent validity. The Meno-D provides a unique tool for clinicians and researchers to measure the presence of perimenopausal depression.



VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION MAY HELP EASE DEPRESSION


Medscape

Vitamin D supplementation may help reduce depressive symptoms, new results of an updated meta-analysis show.

"People who were vitamin D deficient and depressed seemed to respond best to supplementation, but there was some evidence that supplementation improved depressive symptoms in people who had a normal level of vitamin D," Marissa Flaherty, MD, of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, told Medscape Medical News.

Globally, more than 300 million people suffer from depression. It's the number one cause of years lost to disability worldwide. In the United States, the overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency hovers around 42%, with the highest rate seen in blacks.

"In my third year of residency, I noticed that a lot of my depressed patients had very low vitamin D levels, and when I supplemented their vitamin D, their depressive symptoms, particularly their fatigue and energy levels, would improve," Flaherty said.

To investigate further, Flaherty and her colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials published from 2011 to 2016 that examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation (vs no supplementation) on depressive symptoms, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.



PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ACETAMINOPHEN AND RISK FOR ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, META-ANALYSIS, AND META-REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF COHORT STUDIES

American Journal of Epidemiology

Abstract

Acetaminophen is the analgesic and antipyretic most commonly used during pregnancy. Evidence of neurodisruptive properties is accumulating. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring of women exposed to acetaminophen during pregnancy. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases for relevant studies up to January 2017. Data were independently extracted and assessed by 2 researchers. Seven eligible retrospective cohorts included 132,738 mother-child pairs, with follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 11 years. The pooled risk ratio for ADHD was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 1.47; I2 = 72%); for ASD, the risk ratio was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.25; I2 = 14%), and for hyperactivity symptoms, it was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.43; I2 = 93%). In meta-regression analysis, the association between exposure and ADHD increased with the child’s age upon follow-up (β = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.07) and with the mean duration of exposure (β = 0.00, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.01). The available data is of observational nature only. Studies differed widely in exposure and outcome assessment. Acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for ADHD, ASD, and hyperactivity symptoms. These findings are concerning; however, results should be interpreted with caution given that the available evidence consists of observational studies and is susceptible to several potential sources of bias.



ESTIMATION OF LIFETIME RISKS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE DEMENTIA USING BIOMARKERS FOR PRECLINICAL DISEASE


The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association

Abstract

Introduction
Lifetime risks are the probabilities of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia during one's lifespan. Here, we report the first estimates of the lifetime and ten-year risks of AD dementia based on age, gender, and biomarker tests for preclinical disease.

Methods
We used a multistate model for the disease process together with US death rates.

Results
Lifetime risks of AD dementia vary considerably by age, gender, and the preclinical or clinical disease state of the individual. For example, the lifetime risks for a female with only amyloidosis are 8.4% for a 90-year old and 29.3% for a 65-year old. Persons younger than 85 years with mild cognitive impairment, amyloidosis, and neurodegeneration have lifetime risks of AD dementia greater than 50%.

Discussion
Most persons with preclinical AD will not develop AD dementia during their lifetimes. Lifetime risks help interpret the clinical significance of biomarker screening tests for AD



Online Journals:




Biological Psychiatry - Volume 84, Issue 11, December 2018



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