Sunday, May 1, 2016

May 2016

Effects of Citalopram on Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Dementia: Evidence From the CitAD Study 


The American Journal of Psychiatry

Abstract

Objective:
Citalopram has been shown to improve agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The authors evaluated whether other neuropsychiatric symptoms improve with citalopram treatment compared with placebo.

Method:
In this planned secondary analysis of the Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease study, the authors evaluated the effect of citalopram on the 12 neuropsychiatric symptom domains assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). They compared caregiver-reported NPI scores at week 9 in patients receiving citalopram (30 mg/day) or placebo with regard to both the presence or absence of individual neuropsychiatric symptoms and individual domain scores (reflecting severity) in participants who had symptoms at week 9.

Results:
At week 9, participants treated with citalopram were significantly less likely to be reported as showing delusions (odds ratio=0.40), anxiety (odds ratio=0.43), and irritability/lability (odds ratio=0.38). A comparison of median scores of participants with symptoms present at week 9 showed significant differences favoring citalopram for hallucinations and favoring placebo for sleep/nighttime behavior disorders.

Conclusions:
While dosage constraints must be considered because of citalopram’s adverse effect profile, this agent’s overall therapeutic effects in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and agitation, in addition to efficacy for agitation/aggression, included reductions in the frequency of irritability, anxiety, and delusions; among patients who had these symptoms at week 9, they included a reduction in the severity of hallucinations but an increase in the severity of sleep/nighttime behavior disorders.



A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Frequency Study of Intravenous Ketamine in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression


The American Journal of Psychiatry

Abstract

Objective:
Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, has demonstrated a rapid-onset antidepressant effect in patients with treatment-resistant depression. This study evaluated the efficacy of twice- and thrice-weekly intravenous administration of ketamine in sustaining initial antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression.

Method:
In a multicenter, double-blind study, adults (ages 18–64 years) with treatment-resistant depression were randomized to receive either intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) or intravenous placebo, administered over 40 minutes, either two or three times weekly, for up to 4 weeks. Patients who discontinued double-blind treatment after at least 2 weeks for lack of efficacy could enter an optional 2-week open-label phase to receive ketamine with the same frequency as in the double-blind phase. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to day 15 in total score on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).

Results:
In total, 67 (45 women) of 68 randomized patients received treatment. In the twice-weekly dosing groups, the mean change in MADRS score at day 15 was −18.4 (SD=12.0) for ketamine and −5.7 (SD=10.2) for placebo; in the thrice-weekly groups, it was −17.7 (SD=7.3) for ketamine and −3.1 (SD=5.7) for placebo. Similar observations were noted for ketamine during the open-label phase (twice-weekly, −12.2 [SD=12.8] on day 4; thrice-weekly, −14.0 [SD=12.5] on day 5). Both regimens were generally well tolerated. Headache, anxiety, dissociation, nausea, and dizziness were the most common (≥20%) treatment-emergent adverse events. Dissociative symptoms occurred transiently and attenuated with repeated dosing.

Conclusions:
Twice-weekly and thrice-weekly administration of ketamine at 0.5 mg/kg similarly maintained antidepressant efficacy over 15 days.



Reduced Integrity of Right Lateralized White Matter in Patients with Primary Insomnia: A Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Study


Radiology 

Abstract

Purpose
To analyze the integrity of white matter (WM) tracts in primary insomnia patients and provide better characterization of abnormal WM integrity and its relationship with disease duration and clinical features of primary insomnia.

Materials and Methods
This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Guangdong No. 2 Provincial People’s Hospital. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare changes in diffusion parameters of WM tracts from 23 primary insomnia patients and 30 healthy control (HC) participants, and the accuracy of these changes in distinguishing insomnia patients from HC participants was evaluated. Voxel-wise statistics across subjects was performed by using a 5000-permutation set with family-wise error correction (family-wise error, P < .05). Multiple regressions were used to analyze the associations between the abnormal fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM with disease duration, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, insomnia severity index, self-rating anxiety scale, and the self-rating depression scale in primary insomnia. Characteristics for abnormal WM were also investigated in tract-level analyses.

Results
Primary insomnia patients had lower FA values mainly in the right anterior limb of the internal capsule, right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right anterior corona radiata, right superior corona radiata, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, body of the corpus callosum, and right thalamus (P < .05, family-wise error correction). The receiver operating characteristic areas for the seven regions were acceptable (range, 0.60–0.74; 60%–74%). Multiple regression models showed abnormal FA values in the thalamus and body corpus callosum were associated with the disease duration, self-rating depression scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. Tract-level analysis suggested that the reduced FA values might be related to greater radial diffusivity.

Conclusion
This study showed that WM tracts related to regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and limbic cognitive and sensorimotor regions, are disrupted in the right brain in patients with primary insomnia. The reduced integrity of these WM tracts may be because of loss of myelination.



Pharmacotherapy Relapse Prevention in Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial


The American Journal of Psychiatry
  
Abstract

Objective
Body dysmorphic disorder is common, distressing, and often severely impairing. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors appear efficacious, but the few existing pharmacotherapy studies were short term (≤4 months), and no relapse prevention studies or continuation phase studies have been conducted to the authors’ knowledge. The authors report results from the first relapse prevention study in body dysmorphic disorder.

Method
Adults (N=100) with DSM-IV body dysmorphic disorder received open-label escitalopram for 14 weeks (phase 1); 58 responders were then randomized to double-blind continuation treatment with escitalopram versus switch to placebo for 6 months (phase 2). Reliable and valid outcome measures were utilized.

Results
In phase 1, 67.0% of treated subjects and 81.1% of subjects who completed phase 1 responded to escitalopram. Body dysmorphic disorder severity (in both the intent-to-treat and the completer groups) and insight, depressive symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life significantly improved from baseline to end of phase 1. In phase 2, time to relapse was significantly longer with escitalopram than with placebo treatment (hazard ratio=2.72, 95% CI=1.01–8.57). Phase 2 relapse proportions were 18% for escitalopram and 40% for placebo. Among escitalopram-treated subjects, body dysmorphic disorder severity significantly decreased over time during the continuation phase, with 35.7% of subjects showing further improvement. There were no significant group differences in body dysmorphic disorder severity or insight, depressive symptoms, psychosocial functioning, or quality of life.

Conclusions
Continuation-phase escitalopram delayed time to relapse, and fewer escitalopram-treated subjects relapsed than did placebo-treated subjects. Body dysmorphic disorder severity significantly improved during 6 additional months of escitalopram treatment following acute response; more than one-third of escitalopram-treated subjects experienced further improvement.



Association of Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Depression in Localized Prostate Cancer 


Journal of Clinical Oncology

Abstract

Purpose 
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may contribute to depression, yet several studies have not demonstrated a link. We aimed to determine whether receipt of any ADT or longer duration of ADT for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with an increased risk of depression.

Methods 
We identified 78,552 men older than age 65 years with stage I to III PCa using the SEER-Medicare–linked database from 1992 to 2006, excluding patients with psychiatric diagnoses within the prior year. Our primary analysis was the association between pharmacologic ADT and the diagnosis of depression or receipt of inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment using Cox proportional hazards regression. Drug data for treatment of depression were not available. Our secondary analysis investigated the association between duration of ADT and each end point.

Results 
Overall, 43% of patients (n = 33,882) who received ADT, compared with patients who did not receive ADT, had higher 3-year cumulative incidences of depression (7.1% v 5.2%, respectively), inpatient psychiatric treatment (2.8% v 1.9%, respectively), and outpatient psychiatric treatment (3.4% v 2.5%, respectively; all P < .001). Adjusted Cox analyses demonstrated that patients with ADT had a 23% increased risk of depression (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.31), 29% increased risk of inpatient psychiatric treatment (AHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.41), and a nonsignificant 7% increased risk of outpatient psychiatric treatment (AHR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.17) compared with patients without ADT. The risk of depression increased with duration of ADT, from 12% with ≤ 6 months of treatment, 26% with 7 to 11 months of treatment, to 37% with ≥ 12 months of treatment (P trend < .001). A similar duration effect was seen for inpatient (P trend < .001) and outpatient psychiatric treatment (P trend < .001).

Conclusion 
Pharmacologic ADT increased the risk of depression and inpatient psychiatric treatment in this large study of elderly men with localized PCa. This risk increased with longer duration of ADT. The possible psychiatric effects of ADT should be recognized by physicians and discussed with patients before initiating treatment.



Deep Brain Stimulation of the Ventral Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule for Treatment-Resistant Depression


JAMA Psychiatry

Abstract

Importance  
Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) do not respond sufficiently to several consecutive treatments for major depressive disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for these patients, but presently placebo effects cannot be ruled out.

Objective  
To assess the efficacy of DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), controlling for placebo effects with active and sham stimulation phases.

Design, Setting, and Participants  
Twenty-five patients with TRD from 2 hospitals in the Netherlands were enrolled between March 22, 2010, and May 8, 2014. Patients first entered a 52-week open-label trial during which they received bilateral implants of 4 contact electrodes followed by optimization of DBS until a stable response was achieved. A randomized, double-blind, 12-week crossover phase was then conducted with patients receiving active treatment followed by sham or vice versa. Response and nonresponse to treatment were determined using intention-to-treat analyses.

Interventions  
Deep brain stimulation targeted to the vALIC.

Main Outcomes and Measures  
The change in the investigator-rated score of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) was the main outcome used in analysis of the optimization phase. The primary outcome of the crossover phase was the difference in the HAM-D-17 scores between active and sham DBS. The score range of this tool is 0 to 52, with higher scores representing more severe symptoms. Patients were classified as responders to treatment (≥50% decrease of the HAM-D-17 score compared with baseline) and partial responders (≥25 but <50% decrease of the HAM-D-17 score).

Results  
Of 25 patients included in the study, 8 (32%) were men; the mean (SD) age at inclusion was 53.2 (8.4) years. Mean HAM-D-17 scores decreased from 22.2 (95% CI, 20.3-24.1) at baseline to 15.9 (95% CI, 12.3-19.5) (P = .001), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores from 34.0 (95% CI, 31.8-36.3) to 23.8 (95% CI, 18.4-29.1) (P < .001), and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-report scores from from 49.3 (95% CI, 45.4-53.2) to 38.8 (95% CI, 31.6-46.0) (P = .005) in the optimization phase. Following the optimization phase, which lasted 51.6 (22.0) weeks, 10 patients (40%) were classified as responders and 15 individuals (60%) as nonresponders. Sixteen patients entered the randomized crossover phase (9 responders [56%], 7 nonresponders [44%]). During active DBS, patients scored significantly lower on the HAM-D-17 scale (13.6 [95% CI, 9.8-17.4]) than during sham DBS (23.1 [95% CI, 20.6-25.6]) (P < .001). Serious adverse events included severe nausea during surgery (1 patient), suicide attempt (4 patients), and suicidal ideation (2 patients).

Conclusions and Relevance  
Deep brain stimulation of the vALIC resulted in a significant decrease of depressive symptoms in 10 of 25 patients and was tolerated well. The randomized crossover design corroborates that vALIC DBS causes symptom reduction rather than sham.



Mixed Depression in Bipolar Disorder: Prevalence Rate and Clinical Correlates During Naturalistic Follow-Up in the Stanley Bipolar Network


The American Journal of Psychiatry

Abstract

Objective
DSM-5 introduced the “with mixed features” specifier for major depressive episodes. The authors assessed the prevalence and phenomenology of mixed depression among bipolar disorder patients and qualitatively compared a range of diagnostic thresholds for mixed depression.

Method
In a naturalistic study, 907 adult outpatients with bipolar disorder participating in the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network were followed longitudinally across 14,310 visits from 1995 to 2002. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Clinician-Rated Version (IDS-C) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were administered at each visit.

Results
Mixed depression, defined as an IDS-C score ≥15 and a YMRS score >2 and <12 at the same visit, was observed in 2,139 visits (14.9% of total visits, and 43.5% of visits with depression) by 584 patients (64.4% of all patients). Women were significantly more likely than men to experience subthreshold hypomania during visits with depression (40.7% compared with 34.4%). Patients with one or more mixed depression visits had more symptomatic visits and fewer euthymic visits compared with those with no mixed depression visits. DSM-5-based definitions of mixed depression (ranging from narrower definitions requiring ≥3 nonoverlapping YMRS items concurrent with an IDS-C score ≥15, to broader definitions requiring ≥2 nonoverlapping YMRS items) yielded lower mixed depression prevalence rates (6.3% and 10.8% of visits, respectively) but were found to have similar relationships to gender and longitudinal symptom severity.

Conclusions
Among outpatients with bipolar disorder, concurrent hypomanic symptoms observed during visits with depression were common, particularly in women. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for depression with mixed features may yield inadequate sensitivity to detect patients with mixed depression.



Association Between Anticholinergic Medication Use and Cognition, Brain Metabolism, and Brain Atrophy in Cognitively Normal Older Adults


JAMA Neurology

Abstract

Importance  
The use of anticholinergic (AC) medication is linked to cognitive impairment and an increased risk of dementia. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association between AC medication use and neuroimaging biomarkers of brain metabolism and atrophy as a proxy for understanding the underlying biology of the clinical effects of AC medications.

Objective  
To assess the association between AC medication use and cognition, glucose metabolism, and brain atrophy in cognitively normal older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Indiana Memory and Aging Study (IMAS).

Design, Setting, and Participants  
The ADNI and IMAS are longitudinal studies with cognitive, neuroimaging, and other data collected at regular intervals in clinical and academic research settings. For the participants in the ADNI, visits are repeated 3, 6, and 12 months after the baseline visit and then annually. For the participants in the IMAS, visits are repeated every 18 months after the baseline visit (402 cognitively normal older adults in the ADNI and 49 cognitively normal older adults in the IMAS were included in the present analysis). Participants were either taking (hereafter referred to as the AC+ participants [52 from the ADNI and 8 from the IMAS]) or not taking (hereafter referred to as the AC− participants [350 from the ADNI and 41 from the IMAS]) at least 1 medication with medium or high AC activity. Data analysis for this study was performed in November 2015.

Main Outcomes and Measures  
Cognitive scores, mean fludeoxyglucose F 18 standardized uptake value ratio (participants from the ADNI only), and brain atrophy measures from structural magnetic resonance imaging were compared between AC+ participants and AC− participants after adjusting for potential confounders. The total AC burden score was calculated and was related to target measures. The association of AC use and longitudinal clinical decline (mean [SD] follow-up period, 32.1 [24.7] months [range, 6-108 months]) was examined using Cox regression.

Results  
The 52 AC+ participants (mean [SD] age, 73.3 [6.6] years) from the ADNI showed lower mean scores on Weschler Memory Scale–Revised Logical Memory Immediate Recall (raw mean scores: 13.27 for AC+ participants and 14.16 for AC− participants; P = .04) and the Trail Making Test Part B (raw mean scores: 97.85 seconds for AC+ participants and 82.61 seconds for AC− participants; P = .04) and a lower executive function composite score (raw mean scores: 0.58 for AC+ participants and 0.78 for AC− participants; P = .04) than the 350 AC− participants (mean [SD] age, 73.3 [5.8] years) from the ADNI. Reduced total cortical volume and temporal lobe cortical thickness and greater lateral ventricle and inferior lateral ventricle volumes were seen in the AC+ participants relative to the AC− participants.

Conclusions and Relevance  
The use of AC medication was associated with increased brain atrophy and dysfunction and clinical decline. Thus, use of AC medication among older adults should likely be discouraged if alternative therapies are available.



Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of the Synaptic Marker Neurogranin in Alzheimer Disease


JAMA Neurology

Abstract

Importance  
Synaptic loss is an early pathologic substrate of Alzheimer disease (AD). Neurogranin is a postsynaptic neuronal protein that has demonstrated utility as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of synaptic loss in AD.

Objective  
To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of CSF neurogranin levels in a large, well-characterized cohort of individuals with symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls.

Design, Setting, and Participants  
A cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study of cognitive decline in patients with symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls was performed. Participants were individuals with a clinical diagnosis of early symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls who were enrolled in longitudinal studies of aging and dementia at the Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, from January 21, 2000, through March 21, 2011. Data analysis was performed from November 1, 2013, to March 31, 2015.

Main Outcomes and Measures  
Correlations between baseline CSF biomarker levels and future cognitive decline in patients with symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls over time.

Results  
A total of 302 individuals (mean [SE] age, 73.1 [0.4] years) were included in this study (95 patients [52 women and 43 men] with AD and 207 controls [125 women and 82 men]). The CSF neurogranin levels differentiated patients with early symptomatic AD from controls with comparable diagnostic utility (mean [SE] area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.71 [0.03]; 95% CI, 0.64-0.77) to the other CSF biomarkers. The CSF neurogranin levels correlated with brain atrophy (normalized whole-brain volumes: adjusted r = −0.38, P = .02; hippocampal volumes: adjusted r = −0.36, P = .03; entorhinal volumes: adjusted r = −0.46, P = .006; and parahippocampal volumes: adjusted r = −0.47, P = .005, n = 38) in AD and with amyloid load (r = 0.39, P = .02, n = 36) in preclinical AD. The CSF neurogranin levels predicted future cognitive impairment (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.29-2.78; P = .001 as a continuous measure, and adjusted hazard ratio, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.13-5.99; P = .02 as a categorical measure using the 85th percentile cutoff value) in controls and rates of cognitive decline (Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes score: β estimate, 0.29; P = .001; global composite scores: β estimate, −0.11; P = .001; episodic memory scores: β estimate, −0.18; P < .001; and semantic memory scores: β estimate, −0.06; P = .04, n = 57) in patients with symptomatic AD over time, similarly to the CSF proteins VILIP-1, tau, and p-tau181.

Conclusions and Relevance  
The CSF levels of the synaptic marker neurogranin offer diagnostic and prognostic utility for early symptomatic AD that is comparable to other CSF markers of AD. Importantly, CSF neurogranin complements the collective ability of these markers to predict future cognitive decline in cognitively normal individuals and, therefore, will be a useful addition to the current panel of AD biomarkers.



Adjunctive Nutraceuticals for Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses


The American Journal of Psychiatry

Abstract

Objective
There is burgeoning interest in augmentation strategies for improving inadequate response to antidepressants. The adjunctive use of standardized pharmaceutical-grade nutrients, known as nutraceuticals, has the potential to modulate several neurochemical pathways implicated in depression. While many studies have been conducted in this area, to date no specialized systematic review (or meta-analysis) has been conducted.

Method
A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was conducted up to December 2015 for clinical trials using adjunctive nutrients for depression. Where sufficient data were available, a random-effects model analyzed the standard mean difference between treatment and placebo in the change from baseline to endpoint, combining the effect size data. Funnel plot and heterogeneity analyses were also performed.

Results
Primarily positive results were found for replicated studies testing S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), methylfolate, omega-3 (primarily EPA or ethyl-EPA), and vitamin D, with positive isolated studies for creatine, folinic acid, and an amino acid combination. Mixed results were found for zinc, folic acid, vitamin C, and tryptophan, with nonsignificant results for inositol. No major adverse effects were noted in the studies (aside from minor digestive disturbance). A meta-analysis of adjunctive omega-3 versus placebo revealed a significant and moderate to strong effect in favor of omega-3. Conversely, a meta-analysis of folic acid revealed a nonsignificant difference from placebo. Marked study heterogeneity was found in a Higgins test for both omega-3 and folic acid studies; funnel plots also revealed asymmetry (reflecting potential study bias).

Conclusions
Current evidence supports adjunctive use of SAMe, methylfolate, omega-3, and vitamin D with antidepressants to reduce depressive symptoms.



Online Journals:




Biological Psychiatry - Volume 79, Issue 10, May 2016



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