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Saturday, May 10, 2014

Neuropsychopharmacology and Neuroscience News, April 2014

Efficacy of Intravenous Ketamine for Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 

JAMA Psychiatry

Abstract Conclusions  
This study provides the first evidence for rapid reduction in symptom severity following ketamine infusion in patients with chronic PTSD. If replicated, these findings may lead to novel approaches to the pharmacologic treatment of patients with this disabling condition.

Link: JAMA Psychiatry

Study Finds Metformin Most Effective Intervention for Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain:

Pharmacological Strategies to Counteract Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain and Metabolic Adverse Effects in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Schizophrenia Bulletin

Abstract Conclusions
When nonpharmacological strategies alone are insufficient, and switching antipsychotics to relatively weight-neutral agents is not feasible, the literature supports the use of concomitant metformin as first choice among pharmacological interventions to counteract antipsychotic-induced weight gain and other metabolic adversities in schizophrenia.

Link: Schizophrenia Bulletin

Antipsychotic Use in Children on Medicaid Needs Close Monitoring, Researchers Suggest:

Atypical Antipsychotic Use Among Medicaid-Insured Children and Adolescents: Duration, Safety, and Monitoring Implications

Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

Abstract Conclusions
Exposure to atypical antipsychotics in Medicaid-insured youth, in particular for children in foster care and those diagnosed with ADHD, was substantial, warranting outcomes research for long-term effectiveness, safety, and oversight for appropriate cardiometabolic monitoring.

Link: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

Experimental Nasal Spray May Treat Social Anxiety Disorder, Study Indicates:

Effect of an Acute Intranasal Aerosol Dose of PH94B on Social and Performance Anxiety in Women With Social Anxiety Disorder

The American Journal of Psychiatry

Abstract Conclusions
PH94B may be a novel, effective, and well-tolerated acute treatment for performance and social anxiety in women with social anxiety disorder.

Link: The American Journal of Psychiatry

Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Medications Associated With Increased Mortality Risk, Study Finds:

Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study


Abstract Conclusions  
In this large cohort of patients attending UK primary care, anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs were associated with significantly increased risk of mortality over a seven year period, after adjusting for a range of potential confounders. As with all observational findings, however, these results are prone to bias arising from unmeasured and residual confounding.

Link: BMJ

APOE-4 Allele May Confer Greater Alzheimer's Risk for Women, Study Suggests:

Sex modifies the APOE-related risk of developing Alzheimer disease

Annals of Neurology

Abstract Conclusions
APOE4 confers greater AD risk in women. Biomarker results suggest that increased APOE-related risk in women may be associated with tau pathology. These findings have important clinical implications and suggest novel research approaches into AD pathogenesis.

Link: Annals of Neurology

Study Finds Link Between Diabetes and Both Impulse Control Disorders and Depression:

Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and diabetes mellitus: a role for impulse control disorders and depression


Abstract Conclusions
Depression and impulse control disorders (eating disorders in particular) were significantly associated with diabetes diagnosis after comorbidity adjustment. These findings support the focus on depression as having a role in diabetes onset, but suggest that this focus may be extended towards impulse control disorders. Acknowledging the comorbidity of mental disorders is important in determining the associations between mental disorders and subsequent diabetes. 

Link: Diabetologia

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